INHOPE EC-funded hotline activity: overview of Quarter 1, 2024

The first quarter of 2024 has seen a significant volume of activity among the INHOPE EC-funded hotlines, reflecting a concerted effort to combat online child sexual abuse material (CSAM). This article provides a comprehensive overview of the collective efforts and achievements of hotlines during this period.

Date 2024-06-23 Author INHOPE Section awareness, hotlines
A report showing on a desktop computer screen, and an open notepad on a desk

Volume and nature of reports

In Q1 2024, the 29 EC co-funded hotlines received a total of 287,916 reports from the public regarding URLs containing potentially illegal content. The vast majority of this figure encompasses unique reports that had not been previously actioned, with only 4,678 duplicate reports received. It's important to note that each hotline has its own criteria for defining duplicates, such as the same URL, image, or the time frame for comparison, which can affect the overall reporting numbers.

Breakdown of CSAM/CSEM reports

A significant portion of the reports received, 59.35 per cent, were identified as CSAM, marking an increase from the previous quarter. During the first quarter of 2024, the EC-funded hotlines received a staggering total of 172,096 reports related to child sexual abuse material (CSAM) and child sexual exploitation material (CSEM). This comprehensive figure includes various types of harmful content. Among these reports, 2,863 were identified as self-generated content and 1,503 reports were categorised as non-self-generated content.

Additionally, the hotlines also dealt with 1,073 reports involving sexualised posing, modeling, or other inappropriate images of children and 1,168 reports of computer-generated CSAM, which includes manga, drawings, and animations depicting abusive scenarios.

Report sources

The vast majority of processed reports originated from websites. Detailed data on website types showed that the most frequently reported were referrer-based sites and Onion/TOR sites, with 1,628 and 2,457 reports, respectively. Additionally, 2,222 reports were hosted at unspecified locations, reflecting the diverse and often hidden nature of these harmful contents.

Actions taken

In the first quarter of 2024, INHOPE EC-funded hotlines took significant actions to combat the spread of child sexual abuse material. A substantial number of reports, totalling 41,611, were forwarded to law enforcement agencies (LEAs) during this quarter. Additionally, 12,781 reports were sent to internet service providers (ISPs) for content removal.

One of the notable developments during this quarter was the increase in reports uploaded into ICCAM*. A total of 44,935 reports were added to ICCAM, a significant rise from the 33,711 reports uploaded in the fourth quarter of 2023.

Hosting locations 

Regarding the hosting locations of reported content, the majority of reports inserted into ICCAM were hosted in-country, with 8,332 such instances.


The first quarter of 2024 demonstrates a robust response from the INHOPE EC-funded hotlines, reflecting their commitment to tackling the proliferation of online CSAM. With increased reporting and proactive measures, these hotlines play a critical role in safeguarding children and ensuring swift action against perpetrators. Continued efforts and international collaboration remain vital to sustaining and enhancing these protective measures.

Discover more about the work of INHOPE at

* ICCAM is INHOPE’s secure software solution to collect, exchange and categorise reports on child sexual abuse material (CSAM), funded by the EU. ICCAM is used by INHOPE hotlines in different jurisdictions (countries) and INTERPOL. The name ICCAM is derived from the phrase “I see child abuse material”.

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